A Concise Timeline of the Gallipoli Campaign



Jul 27

Enver Pasha and the German ambassador meet secretly to talk about a Turko-German alliance

Aug 2

The secret Turko-German alliance is signed

Aug 3

Churchill informs the Turkish authorities that the 2 warships they had ordered in England will not be released and are confiscated by the English

Aug 4

England declares war to Germany

Aug 10

The German warships Goeben and Breslau steam through the Dardanelles into the Marmara. The Dardanelles are closed for Allied ships

Oct 28-29

Three Turkish torpedo-ships with a German crew attack Odessa and the Goeben does the same at Sebastopol, a provocation to draw Turkey further into the war at Germany's side

Nov 3-4-5-6-7

Declarations of war arrive at Constantinople from Russia, England, France, Montenegro, Japan and Belgium

Nov 3

British ships bombard the forts of Seddulbahir and Kum Kale without causing any serious damage

Dec 13

Lieutenant Holbrook dives in his submarine under the minefields in the Straits and sinks the old Turkish battleship Messudieh

Dec 29

The disastrous battle of Sarikamish : of Enver's 100.000 strong army, only 18.000 survivors returned to Turkey



Jan 2

Csar Nicholas of Russia appeals for an Allied demonstration to relieve pressure from the Russian front

Jan 3

British War Council discusses aid to Russia

Jan 8

During a meeting in London, admiral Carden informs Churchill that a naval attack might force the Straits with an appropriate strength in warships

Jan 13

War Council approves plan for Royal Navy forcing Dardanelles

Jan 28

The definitive plans for an attack on the Dardanelles are officially accepted

Jan 29

The Allied Fleet is assembled

Feb 3-4

Djemal Pasha attacks the Suez Canal after an advance through the desert, but is easily beaten back

Feb 9

The British War Council agrees to send troops to support the Naval operation

Feb 16

War Council decides to concentrate troops in vicinity of Dardanelles

Feb 19

British and French battleships under Carden bombard outer forts at Dardanelles

Feb 25

Further bombardments of Turkish forts

Feb 26

Battleships reach entrance of Narrows during bombardment Landing parties of Royal Marines destroy Turkish guns in forts

Mar 1

Four battleships enter Straits and bombard intermediate defences. Demolition parties land and destroy more guns. Four French battleships bombard Bulair Lines from Gulf of Saros

Mar 2

Dardanelles bombardment continues

Mar 3

Landing party in Helles area destroys gun battery

Mar 4

Australian 3rd Infantry Brigade arrives at Lemnos Island

Mar 4-5-6-7

Naval operations continue against Dardanelles defences

Mar 10-11

Naval bombardment at Bulair and Dardanelles

Mar 10

The British War Counsel decides to send the 29th Division to the East

Mar 11

General Sir Ian Hamilton is appointed as commander-in-chief for the operation

Mar 13

Hamilton receives final instructions from Kitchener

Mar 15

Minor Naval activity at Dardanelles

Mar 17

Hamilton arrives at Tenedos

Mar 18

Major naval attempt to force the Straits by 16 British and French battleships - 3 lost, 3 others put out of action.

Mar 19

Naval action not renewed. Telegram from Hamilton to Kitchener, stating that only combined naval and infantry action could be successful

Mar 22

Decision for a combined naval and infantry operation is taken

Apr 11

Hamilton's staff members arrive in Alexandria

Apr 13

Battleships Queen Elisabeth and Queen reconnoitre Gallipoli Peninsula coastline with Expeditionary Force commanders and staff.

Apr 25

Landings at Kum Kale by the French, at Anzac by the Australians and New Zealanders and at Helles by the English

Apr 26

Turkish counter attacks beaten off at Anzac

Apr 27

6 battalions of French troops arrive at Helles and occupy the right flank near the Kereviz Dere

Apr 28

First Battle of Krithia

Apr 29

Heavy Turkish attacks all along the Anzac line

April 30

Australian submarine sunk in sea of Marmara

May 1-2

Night attack by 21 Turkish battalions at Helles breaks into French and British positions and is only stopped with great difficulty

May 4

Australian raid on Gaba Tepe is beaten off

May 5-6

Australian 2nd Brigade and N.Z. Infantry Brigade leave for Helles

May 6-8

Second Battle of Krithia, involving combined French, British and Imperial Forces

May 10

Unsuccessful attack by Australians at the head of Monash Valley

May 14

H.M.S. Goliath sunk at mouth of the Straits

May 15

General Bridges mortally wounded

May 19

Turkish attack at Anzac is beaten off. 10.000 casualties

May 20

Turks first ask for an armistice

May 24

Armistice to bury the dead

May 25

H.M.S. Triumph torpedoed off Gaba Tepe

May 28

Late at night, Turks fire mine in front of Quinn's Post

May 29

Attack on Quinn's Post in which Major Quinn is killed

May 31

Turkish blockhouse blown up in front of Quinn's by two sappers

June 4

3rd Battle of Krithia : slight advance made in the Helles sector at heavy cost (All. 6500 / Tur. 9000). Night raid by Canterbury Infantry from Quinn's Post at night

June 5

New sortie against German Officers' Trench in front of Courtney's Post

June 7-8

Night sortie from Quinn's Post

June 8

First monitor appears off Anzac

June 21

French capture the Haricot Redoubt at Helles at heavy cost (All. 2500 / Tur. 6000)

June 28

Successful British attack on left flank at Helles (All. 3500 / Tur. unknown)

June 29-30

Last Turkish attack on Anzac fails

July 1-7

Secret treaty between Germany and Bulgaria signed

July 2

Strong but unsuccessful Turkish attack at Helles

July 4-5

Another Turkish attack at Helles beaten back with heavy casualties (All. neglectible / Tur. 16000)

July 10

Turks at Cape Helles ask for armistice to bury their dead, but the Allied Command refuses.

July 12

General Masnou, commander of 1st French Division at Helles, is mortally wounded

July 12-13

Allied attack at Helles over 1 mile front (All. 4000 / Tur. 10000)

July 31

Australians take Turkish trench opposite Tasmania Post

Aug 6-7

British attack at Cape Helles. Australians attack at Lone Pine, Quinn's Post and the Nek. Old No3 Post retaken, Table Top and Bauchop's Hill taken by the New Zealanders. Damakjelik Bair captured by the Left Covering Force.

Aug 7

9th British Corps lands at Suvla Bay before dawn. Rhododendron Spur taken by the New Zealanders

Aug 8

Wellington Battallion captures top of Chunk Bair. New army at Suvla remains inactive.

Aug 9

Gurkhas reach the saddle between Hill Q and Chunuk Bair. New Zealanders on Chunuk Bair relieved by New Army Troops.

Aug 10

New Army Troops driven off Chunuk Bair by Turkish counter attack. Unsuccessful British attack at Suvla

Aug 11

Stalemate at Suvla, caused by incompetence of commander Stopford

Aug 12

The 5th Norfolks disappear during a fruitless attack at Suvla and enter history as "the Vanished Battalion"

Aug 14

Telegram from Kitchener to Hamilton, with the proposal to recall Stopford

Aug 15

Unsuccessful British attack at Suvla along the Kiretch Tepe

Aug 20

Italy declares war on Turkey.

Aug 21

Battle of Scimitar Hill at Suvla and first attack on Hill 60 begin. As for troops engaged, the biggest action of the entire Gallipoli campaign.

Aug 27

Battle renewed for possession of Hill 60

Aug 28

New Zealanders hold and consolidate their position on Hill 60

Sep 2

"Southland" transport with 2nd Division troops torpedoed

Sep 20

Bulgarian treaty with Turkey announced

Sep 25

Allied offensive in France begins. Turkish-Bulgarian agreement

Sep 29

British and Indian troops enter Kut-el-Amara

Sep 30

10th (Irish) Division leaves Suvla for Salonika

Oct 3

2nd French Division leaves for Salonika

Oct 5

Allied troops land in Salonika

Oct 7

Britain offers Cyprus to Greece

Oct 8

First autumn storm causes damage to Allied harbours at Suvla and Anzac

Oct 9

Attack on Serbia and Belgrade captured by Austro-Germans

Oct 11

Lord Kitchener asks Ian Hamilton the estimated cost of evacuation. Hamilton thinks 50% casualties might be expected

Oct 12

Sir Ian Hamilton replies that evacuation is unthinkable

Oct 14

In the House of Lords, Lord Milner and Lord Ribblesdale urge evacuation of Gallipoli

Oct 15

Britain and Bulgaria at war.

Oct 16

Kitchener telegram recalling Sir Ian Hamilton

Oct 17

General Sir Ian Hamilton relinquishes command of Mediterranean Expeditionary Force

Oct 20

General Monro, in London, receives instructions to proceed to the Near East and take over command of the M.E.F.

Oct 27

General Sir Charles Monroe takes over command of Force

Oct 30

General Monro first visits the Peninsula

Nov 13

Lord Kitchener lands at Anzac, Churchill resigns from British Cabinet

Nov 24

Period of silence is ordered to last 72 hours

Nov 26

Major General Godley assumes command of Army Corps

Nov 27-28

Commencement of the Great Blizzard

Nov 30

End of the blizzard reveals that the Allied forces had lost 1/10th of their strength

Dec 3

General Townshend besieged at Kut-el-Amara

Dec 7

British Government orders evacuation

Dec 8

General Monro orders Birdwood to proceed with the evacuation of Anzac and Suvla

Dec 10-11

All sick, wounded, surplus troops, vehicles and valuable stores removed

Dec 12

Announcement at Anzac that a winter rest camp at Imbros will be formed. Surplus guns removed

Dec 15

Detailed orders for evacuation issued

Dec 16

All ranks warned of impending operations

Dec 19

Last night of Anzac and Suvla evacuation

Dec 20

Anzac and Suvla evacuation completed without casualties. Troops brought to Lemnos

Dec 21-30

Troops transferred to Egypt



Jan 9

Helles evacuation completed.

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